Syrian security forces have engaged in fierce clashes with rebels on the eastern outskirts of Damascus.
Roseline Ebhoramen reports that, artillery shells and rockets landed in the heart of the capital as part of a surprise rebel attack launched in the Jobar district.
The assault began early on Sunday with car bombs and suicide attacks, and secret tunnels were also used.
The military says it managed to push the rebels back.
The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, a group of activists monitoring the conflict said government warplanes launched more than 30 air strikes on rebel positions.
Damascus only has a few opposition-held areas, and Jobar is the closest to the city centre. Control of the war-damaged area – which is split between rebels and jihadists on one side and government forces on the other – has been fought over for more than two years.
The army had closed routes into the strategically important Abbasid Square as explosions reverberated across the city.
The Observatory said the rebels had initiated the attack to relieve pressure on fighters under attack from government forces in the districts of Barzeh, Tishreen and Qabun.